Dogs are actually a subspecies of wolves that are domesticated and are considered mammals of the canine family. It is interesting to know that dogs were one of the first animals to be domesticated by humans.
In the first part of this article, we give an overview of the unique positive and negative abilities and talents of dogs, then examine behaviors, habits, nutrition, lifespan, maintenance, training, and hundreds of other issues; So if you are interested in dogs, do not miss this article in any way and read it to the end. In this article, we will tell you points and issues that you may never have known about, so stay tuned to the animal world.
Types of dogs
Dogs help humans with different trainings in different ways. First of all, we want to examine the different dimensions of this lovely creature and examine the different dimensions of this dog, so stay tuned to the animal world.
The history of the use of dogs to help humans dates back to the mid-sixteenth century. The first guide dog training school was built in Germany during World War I to help facilitate the return of tired and wounded soldiers. The first guide dog used in the UK was the German Shepherd.
In 1934, the first guide dog training center for the blind was opened.
The Golden Retriever and German Shepherd were more commonly used, and later the Golden Retriever mixed breed with Labrador and Poodle became popular.
Guide dogs are trained for the blind or partially sighted. Even people with color blindness who are unable to detect warning signs can use these dogs. Normally all guide dogs (rescue, blind, deaf, etc.) can enter all environments, even if animals are not allowed there.
Mountain rescue dogs
Mountain rescue dogs are mostly trained and used to handle the activities of climbers and, of course, to rescue people trapped in the mountains, like St. Bernard dogs.
There are dogs that are trained to help deaf or hard of hearing people. In the UK, for example, 650,000 people suffer from hearing loss or deafness.
These dogs are used indoors to respond to doorbells, fire alarms, telephone alarms and alarms, and outdoors in times of sirens, horns, and to alert other neighbors.
These help dogs must pass all hearing and sound sensitivity tests in order to be recognizable to the general public. Special colored collars and straps are used for them.
They are dogs that have neither hearing nor vision functions, but help people with physical disabilities to move and carry the equipment they need, help diagnose seizures in children (identify seizures before they occur, and prevent injuries. Prevent children from falling from heights). Aids are used to identify diseases such as tumors, diabetes, etc.
Ability to bury objects
When digging the ground, the animal’s head is down, back (behind the body) up and the tail is down. It is said to put its tail between its legs to protect its penis, like the animal in a state of fear.
Dog motives for digging
- Fear or escape
- Out of boredom
- the heat
- Burying the bone
- Escape from insects
- Eat soil and plant roots
Fearing terrifying issues (lightning, etc.), the dog digs a pit and sometimes even escapes from the house by digging a pit.
Excavation of this pit takes place under the shade of trees or other neighborhoods. These movements are common among the Rottweiler and Bull Dog breeds.
Dogs love bones, and if they have a lot of bones or if they are not hungry, they will bury them. Of course, dogs also bury stiff, old bones.
This behavior is said to be more common in terrier dogs (because they love to hunt underground animals), but every dog has the talent to do so.
Ability and habit of chewing in dogs
Puppies, like human infants, discover and test the world by mouth and chewing until they are 6 months old.
Chewing is a common condition in dogs and in puppies it relieves itchy gums due to the extraction of new teeth.
Dogs do not know the difference between new and old clothes, and if they chew them, they can harm their owner. So it is better to buy chewing gum from reputable pet stores than to use our old stuff. Never follow your dog if he chooses the wrong tool to chew on, as your pets will think of you as playing and start running.
If you follow your dog angrily, the dog will be afraid of you and run away. Using the loudest voice and forbidding him from doing this and replacing the new toy is the best possible way.
If your pet wants to chew on a shoe or an unwanted device, soak it in hot dogs or very bitter condiments to leave it to your dog. Always use new toys to encourage dogs to play and chew on them.
Sometimes chewing on unwanted objects in the animal has become a bad habit or in case of excessive loneliness in the house, anger, stress or other behavioral problems, the animal will chew on the furniture (chewing furniture, carpets, wooden furniture base). And plastic and…)
It is best to always consider the following so that the dogs’ chewing prowess does not flourish towards sabotage.
Individuals should keep their personal belongings indoors. (Socks, shoes and…)
Do not give the dog an old personal device to play with. (Shoes, socks, etc.)
Use of standard and non-hazardous toys. (Due to the sharpness, fragmentation and the possibility of swallowing and suffocation)
Pay attention to your dog, play with him so that he does not chew maliciously in case of loneliness and stress. (Satisfy your animal physically and mentally)
Do not leave dogs and puppies alone at home for long periods of time.
When you want to leave the house for a relatively long time, take your dog for a long walk (to both exercise and enjoy being with you.
When leaving the house, turn on the TV or radio so that your dog does not feel alone (use animal CDs that soothe the animal with soft, pleasant and nature songs)
Contact the neighbors to visit the house and take care of your dog
Dogs are social animals and like to live with their families, so by meeting the needs of the dog, she can be kept happy and satisfied, and meeting her physical and mental needs will not cause behavioral problems on her part.
Ability to violence and aggression
Dogs can exhibit aggressive behaviors for a variety of reasons, such as medical reasons, fear, bad memories, and so on.
Diseases that provoke violence in dogs include:
Neurological problems (hereditary or acquired) such as head trauma, brain tumors and epilepsy
Pain (especially if it is chronic and severe)
Other instigators of violence in dogs:
Aggression and violence in relation to sovereignty and domination
Invasion to defend the territory
Invasion for hunting (anything that the dog intends to hunt and sees as prey)
Maternal Invasion: The female dog defends her puppies against danger
Dogs’ nutrition, habits and behavior
In this section, we will get acquainted with the nutrition, habits and behavior of dogs, hoping that by getting to know this animal better, we will provide them with more comfort and relaxation while keeping them.
Feeding the dogs
It should be noted that the issue of dog nutrition is a wide-ranging issue that does not fit into this topic. In this chapter, only the nutritional characteristics of dogs are discussed.
Dogs’ diets should be high in vitamins, proteins and minerals.
If the body does not have the nutrients it needs, the dog will show the following symptoms and eating disorders:
Pica: Eating foods that do not even have nutritional value (feces, stones, pieces of iron, glass, etc.) but are very ugly.
Excessive hunger: They eat big and junk food to get rid of hunger.
Mineral Deficiency: Mineral deficiency and anemia can cause obesity in dogs.
Behavioral problems: Dogs sometimes do this to get the attention of their owners or to get rid of loneliness.
Digestive problems: Foods that the animal has not been able to digest well are excreted in the feces to be eaten again. (Inflammation of the pancreas, intestinal infections) To prevent the animal from eating feces, substances such as garlic, spinach, pineapple and pumpkin can be added to dog food in small amounts, which give the feces a bad taste.
Interestingly, using essential oils and perfumes can treat the animal’s excitement and calm them (lavender, lavender, lavender)
War and fights or escape ?!
Puppies spend 90% of their time biting each other.
Dogs fight in the following situations:
- When other dogs do not feel safe enough.
- Dominant dogs need to prove their superior position.
- Playing that is content to prove superiority and dominance.
- Lack of attention and reward for good dog behavior by the pet owner
Ways to prevent dogfights:
- Never let a dog dominate a family member (young or old).
- Feed the dog in different places.
- If dogs are fighting over toys, never give them toys to correct their habit and behavior.
How to separate two fighting dogs:
- Sprinkle water on dogs
- Always include a game time in your schedule with your dog. (Types of games)
- If your dog enjoys traveling by car, take him on short city trips.
- Control your dog’s diet completely and prevent obesity.
Healthy dogs sleep 8 to 10 hours a day. Sad dogs sleep more than this.
In fact, dogs need access to the following to be happy:
- Having a companion and friend (because they are social animals)
- Need more attention from the owner (emotional and health)
- Regular veterinary care
Dogs’ treatment of other pets
Dogs communicate with other animals using sounds (barking, moaning, grunting) and body movements (eyes, ears, eyebrows, mouth, head and tail).
In dealing with other animals, dogs first show friendly signs or slight aggression, and later identify each other by sniffing each other (especially sniffing several areas of the body). Dogs usually do not show their hatred or dislike for another dog or animal soon. If the relationship between the two animals goes well, they will show their interest by licking each other’s faces, jumping for joy and barking to ask for play. Dogs recognize each other by seeing or smelling after long periods of time.
In the face of human beings, they usually first smell human hands. To avoid being bitten by a dog, it is better to show the palm of the hand to the dog and lower your fingers and allow the dog to smell the hand, otherwise the hand is more likely to be bitten if the hand moves quickly. If this step is done well, put your hand on the animal’s shoulder or chest, not on the head, as the dog may consider it a threat.
If the dog tries to bite your hand, it will probably take a lot of patience and practice to make friends. Of course, this is not true for guard dogs and inherently violent dogs, and it is best not to try.
It has been observed in young puppies (6 to 7 months old) that sometimes react to the voices of certain people (rough and timid), which can be due to their inexperience in social relationships. The use of training classes and sometimes sterilization in cases where the animal is very vicious seems to be necessary to alleviate the behaviors.
Dogs are afraid of other animals
Dogs show signs of fear in two ways if they are afraid of other animals:
- Running away, hiding behind your owner, panting, licking your lips, urinating and defecating, and so on.
- Taking defensive positions, attacking, barking, biting, sudden attacks and…
- This could be due to genetic or hereditary issues.
- Due to improper upbringing and lack of socialization of the animal.
- Possibility of danger or injury in the presence of other animals (for example, a cat that attacked a dog in the past and had a bad memory for the animal).
- Anonymous reasons
Dogs treat each other
If you want to keep two or more dogs in the house, it is recommended that both be the same size and of different breeds. The idea that dogs will not fight if they grow up with each other is not necessarily true.
If you are buying a second dog, it is better to introduce both dogs to each other in a place other than home, which is the territory of the first dog.
Hold each dog by one person. If we pull the collar firmly, we will create a state of war between the two dogs. It is best to allow both dogs to be identified at a safe distance.
Dogs treat cats
The process of socialization and body language are different in cats and dogs. The relationship between these two animals in the house should be under the control of the people in the house and if the house is empty, two free animals should never be left in the house. Some dogs are inherently violent towards cats, and some get excited and play with them. In this case, the dog is usually annoyed by the cat and its sharp claws. If cats attack dogs, the dog may be provoked to chase, harass, and even hunt (kill) the cat.
Dogs treat horses, cows and sheep
Dogs can live peacefully with farm animals if properly trained for herding, as dogs instinct to chase larger animals such as cows.
Dogs treat birds, mink, guinea pigs, rabbits and other pets
Dogs should communicate with other animals under the supervision of their owners, and in the absence of the owner, all of them should be kept separate from each other.
Dogs can instinctively attack other animals by hearing or seeing scenes that they are excited about.
The age of dogs
With age, problems such as vision problems, hearing problems, lack of control over urination, dementia and even behavioral problems (violence and aggression) are seen in dogs, which is very annoying and upsetting for their owners. Due to dementia, the dog suffers from forgetfulness and loss of thinking power and even forgets his name.
Symptoms of aging in dogs:
- Decreased body energy
- Stiffness and stiffness in the joints after exercise and walking
- Hardening of the skin
- Hearing loss and sometimes deafness
- Tooth and gum problems
- Emergence of warts, fat masses and tumors
- Excessive thirst and lack of control over urination
- Confusion and ignorance of the environment
- Decreased appetite
- Depression, disobedience to commands and behavioral problems
- Problems with vision and blindness (darkening and blue eyes)
- Tendency to sleep during the day and wake up at night
- Weight gain and obesity
Coping with the signs of aging in dogs
- Regular visits to the veterinarian
- Exercise and walking (to fight obesity and arthritis)
- Observe skin cleanliness (daily care, brushing hair)
- Observing dental and gum hygiene (using toothbrushes and special foods to clean teeth and stimulate gums)
- Create a deeper and deeper emotional connection with the older animal
- Observe the diet appropriate to the age of the animal
Playing with dogs and some of its variants
Hide and seek
Stand up and call your dog to find you. When he finds you, show a lot of excitement and add to the excitement.
Find hidden items
Use delicious toys or pieces of food, first place them in a jar so your dog can see them so he can find them and play with them or eat them. Later, hide the device in a simple place where the dog can see it again, for example, behind the sofa, and gradually change the number of hidden devices and its location.
Go and get it (Fetch)
Throw a ball or piece of wood and ask your dog to bring it to you and give it to you, and gradually throw the device away.
Tug of war
Always use a rope (not socks or collars) to start the game and control it, because dogs have an innate attraction to this game, and sometimes to win the game, they take any action (even violence) that should be You are the end of the game.
Throw and catch by dogs, catch and bring
Play soccer or play ball
Use a large ball that the dog can not hold in his mouth and escape, play this game at home when the weather is not right.
Usually the dominant animals of the group like to show their ownership of the toy, the dish and the resting place.
In fact, by doing so, the dog is questioning the superiority of its owner, which must be dealt with by the dog, because in the future, there is a possibility of more disobedience. If your dog is interested in a particular toy and does not turn away from it, and if we approach the toy, it will bark or show its teeth. It is recommended that you give it more of the same type of toy so that the dog is less sensitive to it. And roll his main ball (for example, give him 5 balls instead of a tennis ball)
If he is allergic to your food, give him some food and then put a small amount of food in his food and call him to eat then cheer and caress him, some time later some food so that he is still hungry. Put her in the dish and encourage her not to behave violently, thus instilling in her that she will stay hungry with sensitivity on the food and remove this bad behavior from her.
Cause of dogs rolling
Sometimes dogs roll on the ground just to scratch their backs. Another reason could be for territory (determination of territory) in dogs, which in this way emit their odor in the place of release. Maybe another reason to get your owner’s attention, maybe to play. However, rolling can have four causes:
- Determining the territory
- Attract the owner’s attention
Sometimes dogs roll over in dirty environments, which can be as follows:
Covering up and eliminating body odor like wolves
Wolves roll on the feces of vegetarians such as elephants, deer, and و, eliminating their odor so that their prey loses the ability to recognize them.
To counteract these behaviors, whenever the dog rolls on dirty material, stop him from spraying some water on his head and body.
Sleeping in dogs
The duration of sleep varies between dogs and depends on their age and personality (personal characteristics) and daily activities. Most dogs sleep about 14 hours a day (about 12 to 16 hours).
Large breed dogs such as the Mastiff and St. Bernard sleep 16 to 18 hours a day. Boredom and loneliness can be another reason for animals to sleep.
Sleep states in dogs are similar to humans, these states are as follows
- The first phase (calm phase, calm): who is alert and understands what is happening in the environment. Breathing rate is low, blood pressure, heart rate and body temperature drop.
- After 10 minutes, the dog enters (Rem) or rapid eye movements or active phase of sleep: the eyes move under the eyelids, may bark or moan and move their legs. At this stage, the activity of the dog’s brain is the same as when seeing a human, and may be the reason why dogs also dream.
Adult dogs spend 10 to 12 percent of their sleep time in REM sleep, and this percentage is higher in puppies. Some dogs are sensitive to their sleeping place, always instinctively tapping it with their paws before going to sleep, until they are crowded, and after several walks around the sleeping place, they sleep there.
Diseases can greatly increase or decrease a dog’s sleep.
The olfactory power of dogs
Dogs are said to smell thousands of times (1,000 to 10,000 times) stronger than humans. Dogs have 120 to 220 million olfactory receptors in their noses, but humans have only 5 million of these receptors. In Blood Hounds, this is 300 million, and the efficiency of the part of the dog’s brain that is responsible for analyzing environmental odors is 40 times greater than that of humans.
Anatomy of the nose of dogs
Most of the human brain is the visual cortex, but in dogs most of it is the olfactory cortex.
Dogs’ noses are usually wet. Man uses his extraordinary olfactory power in dogs to identify drugs, smuggle goods, and fight terrorist attacks. Dogs such as Labradors and Golden Retrievers, German Shepherds, Belgian Malanovis.
Beagle dogs are used to identify prohibited (smuggled) agricultural materials.
Dogs are able to sense and smell the following
- Fear of other dogs (due to the secretion of odor and danger pheromone from the anal glands of frightened dogs)
- Identify odors up to 40 feet underground (gas pipe leaks, identify insects and termites underground for wooden structures and rot). On the island of Guam, the Jack Russell breed is used to identify brown snakes.
- Human fingerprint recognition (up to one week)
- Detection and odor of electricity (perhaps due to the detection of small amounts of free ozone by electrical processes)
- Identifying ready-to-mate cows from urine (ranchers use dogs to identify ready-to-mate cows)
- Identify heart attack and lower blood sugar
- Different reactions to different types of scents
lavender calms the dog.
Chamomile calms the dog.
Rosemary and mint excite the dog.
It is said that dogs may not be able to identify identical twins based on smell alone.
Dogs can chase after a person 20 minutes after they leave a place.
Identification of cancer in humans
Dogs can detect lung and breast cancer in 88% to 97% of cases by smelling human breath. This accuracy is 85 to 90% in the scanner device.
Identification of seizures and epilepsy before occurrence in humans
These dogs save their owners ‘lives by licking their owners’ faces or moving them away from the stairs and barking before a seizure occurs and ask for help.
The human and dog eyes have cone cells (sensitive to color and bright light) and cylindrical (important for night vision).
Dogs are less visually impaired than humans in general. At the age of 4 months, they reach the maturity and development of vision and are able to see colors but do not see much detail. Dogs are very sensitive to moving objects and can see a hand shake from a distance of 160 meters.
Dogs’ vision is better and stronger at night than humans. They are very sensitive to fast and sudden movements, which distinguishes them for guarding. The viewing angle of both eyes of dogs is 250 to 270 degrees, but the monocular vision is about 80 degrees.
Depending on the breed, the distance between the eyes is different, so that in the Pekingese or Bull Terrier race, the vision of both eyes is 85 degrees, or in the Greyhound race, 75 degrees, and in humans, 140 degrees. The peripheral vision of dogs also depends on the shape of the skull.
To see the colors, it is necessary to have green, blue and red sensitive receptors.
In the past, it was believed that dogs were color-blind and could see blue, white, black, and gray. Recent research, however, shows that dogs can detect wavelengths in blue and yellow under bright light, that is, they can distinguish two colors from the three primary colors blue, green, and red, and we call them relative coloring. And not absolute.
Dogs are not able to recognize red and orange. The color spectrum of vision in dogs can be seen in two ways:
Purple and blue that look like blue and yellow, green, and yellow or red that look yellow. Dogs are more color-blind than red and green, and are stronger than humans at recognizing and distinguishing shades of gray.
Dogs have 3 times the range of vision of humans, which allows them to be 3 times more powerful in detecting dimmed light. (The human eye is able to detect visible light with a wavelength of 400 to 700 nm, and dogs are able to detect light with a wavelength of 3 times less and more).
Sharpness in humans is 30 cpd or cycle speed per degree, which is 12. The criterion of sharpness in dogs is 4 times that of humans. If vision in humans is 20/20, it is 20/50 in dogs (20 out of 50).
Dogs’ lenses have poor adaptability, so they have a limited ability to focus at close distances; symmetrical distances are greater in dogs than in humans.
People with color green do not have sensitive green receptors, do not see orange, yellow, and green, and see blue and green.
Dog sounds and hearing
One can receive sounds at frequencies of 20 and 20,000 Hz. Hearing is second only to dogs in olfactory power. The frequency of hearing in dogs is 40 to 60,000 Hz, which decreases with age. Like the German and the miniature poodle, it depends on the breed and age of the animal. Dogs raise their ears and move around when they hear sound stimuli. Another reason that dogs can hear better is the mobility of their ears. (Which uses at least 18 muscles to do this) which is 9 muscles in humans. Of course, the curvature of the ear is also important, for example, in the German Shepherd breed, raised corners and curvature help to hear the maximum sound waves and frequencies.
Sound for dogs used in breeding has a frequency between 20,000 and 50,000 Hz. Dogs can be very helpful in detecting earthquakes because of their vibration and ground sounds, they are able to detect 35,000 tremors per second.