Psychologists have long been eager to know the intelligence of individuals and tried to measure the IQ of children and adults by introducing various types of intelligence tests. These tests have evolved over time and today provide useful information about how people perform in various fields to the extent that the condition for admission to many jobs is to pass these tests and obtain an acceptable score in them. Join us to talk more about these tests.
Intelligence test is one of the most common psychological tests that is designed and performed to assess the cognitive abilities of individuals.
The result of this test will be a measure of a person’s intellectual abilities and potentials, but how are these scores calculated?
How can we trust their certainty?
To better understand the meaning of these scores, we must first become familiar with how they are calculated. Many of today’s tests are standardized, and scores are obtained by comparing individual performance with individual age group norms. Note, however, that although many tests have a similar method of scoring, some are different and use other methods to evaluate.
People’s IQ test scores give us useful information to compare them to their peer group. This information includes:
- Language skills;
- Mathematical abilities;
- Memory ;
- Processing speed;
- The power of reasoning ;
- Ability to process visually and spatially.
Designers of various types of intelligence tests use a process called standardization to properly evaluate and interpret test scores, that is, they sample a portion of the test target population and perform an IQ test for them. This prototype is selected to be as similar as possible to the final population and to reflect their characteristics. Such norms or standards are created according to which individual individuals can be compared.
What is the interpretation of the intelligence test score in life?
A person’s IQ affects various aspects of his life, including his performance at school and at work. The higher a person’s IQ, the more likely they are to succeed in school, and the lower they are, the more likely they are to develop a mental disability. The descriptive classification of IQ levels is as follows:
- Above 130: Excellent
- 120 to 129: Superior
- 110 to 119: Above average
- 90 to 109: Medium
- 80 to 89: Less than average
- 70 to 79: Border
- 69 and less: Mental disability
The normal IQ of different age groups varies between 97 and 108. IQ below 70 IQ low and a score around 140 indicates a high IQ. This means that the IQ test score tells us how far our performance on the test is from the community average.
What are the uses of IQ testing?
Modern intelligence tests often focus on abilities such as math skills, memory, spatial perception, and language skills. The ability to solve problems and memorize information are also important indicators of intelligence. This is why IQ tests often focus on these skills to help evaluate people in different areas. Some of these areas are:
- Academic evaluation;
- Diagnosis of mental disability;
- Cognitive research;
- Evaluation of job seekers;
- Assess cognitive abilities such as memory, speed and attention.
In the past, if someone got a score below 70 on an IQ test, they would say they have a mental disability, but today we know that these scores alone are not enough to diagnose mental disorders. Therefore, in addition to the results of various types of intelligence tests, experts also consider other factors such as age and adaptive skills.
History of types of intelligence tests
In the early 1900s, the French government commissioned two researchers, Alfred Binet and Henri Simon, to design intelligence tests for children. The purpose of this test was to find problem children in school. It was not long before American researchers realized the value of these tests, and a Stanford University professor named Louis Terman modified the test. The result was a test that was standardized by performing on thousands of American children of all ages.
Later, David Wechsler designed a test called the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS), which is the most widely used adult IQ test today. The current version of the test measures 15 different abilities and provides psychologists with scores in five areas: speech, visual-spatial perception, fluid reasoning, working memory, and processing speed.
Over the years, several psychologists and researchers have introduced new tests in an attempt to fix the flaws of the old tests, the most famous of which we will examine below.
1. Bine test
Binet and his colleague Theodore Simon designed a test to identify children who were not interested in going to school. The test questions were about topics that were not explicitly taught in the classroom, such as attention, memory, and problem-solving skills. The result was a 30-question test that introduced the first IQ test in history.
Stanford-Binet intelligence test
Stanford University psychologist Lewis Terman standardized the Binet test with a community of American participants. The result of this standardization was the Stanford-Binet intelligence test. The Stanford-Binet intelligence test introduced the IQ unit, which shows people score on the test. This score, which represents the IQ of individuals, is calculated based on their mental age and is one of the most popular criteria for measuring IQ.
2. Raven IQ test
In 1936, Dr. John C. Raven designed the Raven Matrix Multiple Choice Tests to represent the abstract reasoning of individuals. In this test, the person must be able to identify the missing items of the patterns. Many templates are designed in the form of 2.2, 3.3 or 4.4 matrices.
The Raven matrix is presented to people with different abilities in 3 different ways:
1. Standard progressive matrices
This type of test is the original form of the Raven matrix, first published in 1938. In this type of intelligence test, there were 5 sets of 12, each of which was more difficult than the previous one, and their analysis required more cognitive ability. All items in this test were designed with black ink on a white background.
2. Color progressive matrices
The test was designed for children, the elderly, and people with moderate to severe learning disabilities . The questions of this test are presented on a colored background so that this color is visually stimulating the participant.
3. Advanced progressive matrices
The advanced type of Raven matrix consists of 48 items, which are presented in a set of 12 and a set of 36. The questions of this test are also painted with black ink on a white background and their degree of difficulty is constantly increasing. This IQ test is suitable for adults and adolescents who have a higher IQ.
It is interesting to know that the Advanced Progressive Matrix is one of the entrance tests for the Triple Nine Association. Even the International Society for Philosophical Research (ISPE) accepts the test as evidence.
4. Wechsler intelligence test
Wechsler is a test for measuring adult IQ that David Wexler introduced in 1955 because he was not satisfied with the limitations of the Stanford-Binet test. He designed the 2 Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC) and the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Preschool and Preschool Children (WPPSI) for children. The adult version of this test is called WAIS-IV.
WAIS-IV IQ test for adults
The WAIS-IV IQ test is the most common intelligence test for people aged 16 to 75 years. Scoring is in which the test score of individuals is compared with the scores of other participants in the same age group. The average score is 100 and the normal range is 85 to 115. This scoring method has become a general standard in all types of intelligence tests and is even used in the new version of the Stanford-Binet test.
This test provides 2 general scores that are a summary of a person’s overall intelligence. One of these scores is the total IQ score, which well describes a person’s performance in all 5 areas, and the other is the general ability index, which is estimated based on the results of 6 sub-tests.
5 areas of IQ Wexler test performance
Verbal Comprehension: Measures a person’s verbal knowledge and ability to use verbal skills in new situations. The scores of this factor are a reflection of the educational environment and the home, meaning that people who grow up in an environment full of verbal comprehension perform better in this area.
Visual-Spatial: Designed to measure comprehension of nonverbal concepts, synchronous processes, visual-motor coordination, learning, and the ability to isolate shapes and backgrounds.
Fluid reasoning: Measures the power of recognizing the conceptual relationships between visual forms and reasoning to identify and apply rules.
Processing speed: Measures the processing speed of simple visual information such as abstract designs.
Working memory: Indicates a person’s ability to store information.
Comparison of Wechsler and Binet intelligence tests
The Stanford-Binet IQ test was introduced in 1939 to a target population of children and provided an overall intelligence score. The Wechsler test was introduced in 1995 to address the weaknesses of the Stanford-Binet test and targeted the adult community.
The Wechsler test removes all the limitations of the test and its score pattern gives us useful information. For example, if a person scores higher in some areas and lower in others, it can be concluded that he has a specific learning disability. Another difference is the IQ system in these two tests. The Stanford-Binet IQ test scores are obtained by dividing the mental age by the calendar age of the individuals, but in the Wechsler test the individual scores are compared with the average scores of his or her age group.
4. Gardner IQ test
The theory of multiple intelligences ( Gardner types of intelligence ) was first introduced in 1983 by Howard Gardner as one of the types of intelligence tests. Gardner introduced eight criteria and said that we may have all these intelligences, but the amount of each will be different based on each person’s genetics or experiences. These 8 intelligences are:
- Mathematical logic;
- Body; movement;
Each of these intelligences determines the course of people’s lives and the best job that suits their spirits. For example, a person with high verbal intelligence will be a good lawyer or a person with high interpersonal intelligence will be a good teacher or manager.
People’s IQ scores provide good information about their abilities, but keep in mind that other factors, such as adaptive skills, emotional intelligence, and job performance, are important indicators to consider.
Please tell us about your experiences. Which of the tests in this article have you done so far? How did the test result help you? How much do you believe in the results of these tests? We are waiting to hear your comments, dear ones.